Luftqualitätsindex (Air Quality Index, AQI) für Aztec ist jetzt Gut. Erhalten Sie Echtzeit-, Verlaufs- und Vorhersagedaten zu PM2,5 und Wetter. Lesen Sie mit. Aztec Definition: a member of an indigenous Mexican people who established a great empire, centred on the | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und. Preview: Ein Aufbauspiel in einem Setting, das wir so noch nie gesehen haben. Aztec Empire sieht hübsch aus und könnte frischen Wind in.
Luftqualität in AztecFrom 15 October the Weltmuseum Wien is hosting an exhibition that showcases the legendary art and culture of the Aztecs. Aztec | Jennings, Gary | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Aztec Definition: a member of an indigenous Mexican people who established a great empire, centred on the | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und.
Atztec Navigation menu VideoGiant Pyramids of the Ancient Aztec Empire
After the war, Huexotzinco withdrew, and in ,  the three remaining cities formed a treaty known today as the Triple Alliance.
Land acquired from these conquests was to be held by the three cities together. Tribute was to be divided so that two-fifths each went to Tenochtitlan and Texcoco, and one-fifth went to Tlacopan.
Each of the three kings of the alliance in turn assumed the title "huetlatoani" "Elder Speaker", often translated as "Emperor".
In this role, each temporarily held a de jure position above the rulers of other city-states "tlatoani". In the next years, the Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan came to dominate the Valley of Mexico and extend its power to the shores of the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific.
Tenochtitlan gradually became the dominant power in the alliance. Two of the primary architects of this alliance were the half-brothers Tlacaelel and Moctezuma , nephews of Itzcoatl.
Moctezuma eventually succeeded Itzcoatl as the Mexica huetlatoani in Tlacaelel occupied the newly created title of " Cihuacoatl ", equivalent to something between "Prime Minister" and "Viceroy".
Shortly after the formation of the Triple Alliance, Itzcoatl and Tlacopan instigated sweeping reforms on the Aztec state and religion. It has been alleged that Tlacaelel ordered the burning of some or most of the extant Aztec books, claiming that they contained lies and that it was "not wise that all the people should know the paintings".
After Moctezuma I succeeded Itzcoatl as the Mexica emperor, more reforms were instigated to maintain control over conquered cities. A new imperial tribute system established Mexica tribute collectors that taxed the population directly, bypassing the authority of local dynasties.
Nezahualcoyotl also instituted a policy in the Acolhua lands of granting subject kings tributary holdings in lands far from their capitals.
Some rebellious kings were replaced by calpixqueh , or appointed governors rather than dynastic rulers. Moctezuma issued new laws that further separated nobles from commoners and instituted the death penalty for adultery and other offenses.
Moctezuma also created a new title called "quauhpilli" that could be conferred on commoners. In some rare cases, commoners that received this title married into royal families and became kings.
One component of this reform was the creation of an institution of regulated warfare called the Flower Wars. Mesoamerican warfare overall is characterized by a strong preference for capturing live prisoners as opposed to slaughtering the enemy on the battlefield, which was considered sloppy and gratuitous.
The Flower Wars are a potent manifestation of this approach to warfare. These highly ritualized wars ensured a steady, healthy supply of experienced Aztec warriors as well as a steady, healthy supply of captured enemy warriors for sacrifice to the gods.
Flower wars were pre-arranged by officials on both sides and conducted specifically for the purpose of each polity collecting prisoners for sacrifice.
After the defeat of the Tepanecs, Itzcoatl and Nezahualcoyotl rapidly consolidated power in the Basin of Mexico and began to expand beyond its borders.
The first targets for imperial expansion were Coyoacan in the Basin of Mexico and Cuauhnahuac and Huaxtepec in the modern Mexican state of Morelos.
On the death of Itzcoatl, Moctezuma I was enthroned as the new Mexica emperor. The expansion of the empire was briefly halted by a major four-year drought that hit the Basin of Mexico in , and several cities in Morelos had to be re-conquered after the drought subsided.
In , Moctezuma I died and was succeeded by his son, Axayacatl. Most of Axayacatl's thirteen-year-reign was spent consolidating the territory acquired under his predecessor.
Motecuzoma and Nezahualcoyotl had expanded rapidly and many provinces rebelled. In , Nezahualcoyotl died and his son Nezahualpilli was enthroned as the new huetlatoani of Texcoco.
Tizoc's reign was notoriously brief. He proved to be ineffectual and did not significantly expand the empire.
Apparently due to his incompetence, Tizoc was likely assassinated by his own nobles five years into his rule. Tizoc was succeeded by his brother Ahuitzotl in Like his predecessors, the first part of Ahuitzotl's reign was spent suppressing rebellions that were commonplace due to the indirect nature of Aztec rule.
By the reign of Ahuitzotl, the Mexica were the largest and most powerful faction in the Aztec Triple Alliance.
Ahuitzotl was succeeded by his nephew Moctezuzoma II in Moctezuma II spent most of his reign consolidating power in lands conquered by his predecessors.
Moctezuma II instituted more imperial reforms. Moctezuma II used his reign to attempt to consolidate power more closely with the Mexica Emperor.
His reform efforts were cut short by the Spanish Conquest in An important article, "Rethinking Malinche" by Frances Karttunen examines her role in the conquest and beyond.
Nearby, he founded the town of Veracruz where he met with ambassadors from the reigning Mexica emperor, Motecuzoma II.
The Spanish-led Totonac army crossed into Tlaxcala to seek the latter's alliance against the Aztecs. However, the Tlaxcalan general Xicotencatl the Younger believed them to be hostile, and attacked.
He then took Motecuzoma up to the roof of the palace to ask his subjects to stand down. However, by this point the ruling council of Tenochtitlan had voted to depose Motecuzoma and had elected his brother Cuitlahuac as the new emperor.
The Spaniards and their allies, realizing they were vulnerable to the hostile Mexica in Tenochtitlan following Moctezuma's death, attempted to retreat without detection in what is known as the "Sad Night" or La Noche Triste.
Spaniards and their Indian allies were discovered clandestinely retreating, and then were forced to fight their way out of the city, with heavy loss of life.
Some Spaniards lost their lives by drowning, loaded down with gold. After this incident, a smallpox outbreak hit Tenochtitlan.
Through numerous subsequent battles and skirmishes, he captured the various indigenous city-states or altepetl around the lake shore and surrounding mountains, including the other capitals of the Triple Alliance, Tlacopan and Texcoco.
Texcoco in fact had already become firm allies of the Spaniards and the city-state, and subsequently petitioned the Spanish crown for recognition of their services in the conquest, just as Tlaxcala had done.
Although the attackers took heavy casualties, the Aztecs were ultimately defeated. The city of Tenochtitlan was thoroughly destroyed in the process.
The Aztec Empire was an example of an empire that ruled by indirect means. Like most European empires, it was ethnically very diverse, but unlike most European empires, it was more a system of tributes than a single unitary form of government.
In the theoretical framework of imperial systems posited by American historian Alexander J. Motyl the Aztec empire was an informal type of empire in that the Alliance did not claim supreme authority over its tributary provinces; it merely expected tributes to be paid.
For example, the southern peripheral zones of Xoconochco were not in immediate contact with the central part of the empire.
The hegemonic nature of the Aztec empire can be seen in the fact that generally local rulers were restored to their positions once their city-state was conquered and the Aztecs did not interfere in local affairs as long as the tribute payments were made.
Although the form of government is often referred to as an empire, in fact most areas within the empire were organized as city-states individually known as altepetl in Nahuatl , the language of the Aztecs.
These were small polities ruled by a king or tlatoani literally "speaker", plural tlatoque from an aristocratic dynasty. The Early Aztec period was a time of growth and competition among altepeme.
Even after the empire was formed in and began its program of expansion through conquest, the altepetl remained the dominant form of organization at the local level.
The efficient role of the altepetl as a regional political unit was largely responsible for the success of the empire's hegemonic form of control.
It should be remembered that the term "Aztec empire" is a modern one, not one used by the Aztec themselves. The Aztec realm was at its core composed of three Nahuatl -speaking city states in the densely populated Valley of Mexico.
Over time, asymmetries of power elevated one of those city states, Tenochtitlan, above the other two.
The "Triple Alliance" came to establish hegemony over much of central Mesoamerica, including areas of great linguistic and cultural diversity.
Administration of the empire was performed through largely traditional, indirect means. However, over time something of a nascent bureaucracy may have been beginning to form insofar as the state organization became increasingly centralized.
Before the reign of Nezahualcoyotl — , the Aztec empire operated as a confederation along traditional Mesoamerican lines.
Independent altepetl were led by tlatoani lit. A typical Mesoamerican confederation placed a Huey Tlatoani lit. Following Nezahualcoyotl, the Aztec empire followed a somewhat divergent path, with some tlatoani of recently conquered or otherwise subordinated altepetl becoming replaced with calpixque stewards charged with collecting tribute on behalf of the Huetlatoani rather than simply replacing an old tlatoque with new ones from the same set of local nobility.
Yet the Huey tlatoani was not the sole executive. It was the responsibility of the Huey tlatoani to deal with the external issues of empire; the management of tribute, war, diplomacy, and expansion were all under the purview of the Huey tlatoani.
It was the role of the Cihuacoatl to govern a given city itself. The Cihuacoatl was always a close relative of the Huey tlatoani; Tlacaelel , for example, was the brother of Moctezuma I.
Both the title "Cihuacoatl", which means "female snake" it is the name of a Nahua deity , and the role of the position, somewhat analogous to a European Viceroy or Prime Minister , reflect the dualistic nature of Nahua cosmology.
Neither the position of Cihuacoatl nor the position of Huetlatoani were priestly, yet both did have important ritual tasks. Those of the former were associated with the "female" wet season, those of the latter with the "male" dry season.
While the position of Cihuacoatl is best attested in Tenochtitlan, it is known that the position also existed the nearby altepetl of Atzcapotzalco , Culhuacan , and Tenochtitlan's ally Texcoco.
Despite the apparent lesser status of the position, a Cihuacoatl could prove both influential and powerful, as in the case of Tlacaelel.
Early in the history of the empire, Tenochtitlan developed a four-member military and advisory Council which assisted the Huey tlatoani in his decision-making: the tlacochcalcatl ; the tlaccatecatl ; the ezhuahuacatl ;  and the tlillancalqui.
For other uses, see Aztec disambiguation. Ethnic group of central Mexico and its civilization. Main article: History of the Aztecs.
Main article: Aztec Empire. Main article: Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire. Main articles: Class in Aztec society , Aztec society , and Aztec slavery.
Main article: Women in Aztec civilization. See also: Aztec Empire: Government. Main article: Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Main article: Aztec religion.
Main article: List of Aztec gods and supernatural beings. Main article: Aztec mythology. Main article: Aztec calendar.
Main article: Aztec writing. An Aztec bowl for everyday use. Black on orange ware, a simple Aztec IV style flower design. Main article: Mexican featherwork.
Further information: Society in the Spanish Colonial Americas. Main article: Population history of American indigenous peoples. See also: Society in the Spanish Colonial Americas.
Coat of Arms of Mexico , also present in flag. See also: Aztec cuisine and List of Mexican dishes. Mesoamerica portal Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal Civilizations portal.
I believe it makes more sense to expand the definition of "Aztec" to include the peoples of nearby highland valleys in addition to the inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico.
Readers will find some variation in the terms authors employ in this handbook, but, in general, different authors use Aztecs to refer to people incorporated into the empire of the Triple Alliance in the Late Postclassic period.
An empire of such broad geographic extent [ Scholars often use more specific identifiers, such as Mexica or Tenochca, when appropriate, and they generally employ the term Nahuas to refer to indigenous people in central Mexico [ All of these terms introduce their own problems, whether because they are vague, subsume too much variation, are imposed labels, or are problematic for some other reason.
We have not found a solution that all can agree on and thus accept the varied viewpoints of authors. We use the term Aztec because today it is widely recognized by both scholars and the international public.
In English the variant "Montezuma" was originally the most common, but has now largely been replaced with "motecuhzoma" and "moteuczoma", in Spanish the term "moctezuma" which inverts the order of t and k has been predominant and is a common surname in Mexico, but is now also largely replaced with a form that respects the original Nahuatl structure, such as "motecuzoma".
Indeed no conquests are recorded for Motecuzoma in the last years of his reign, suggesting that he may have been incapable of ruling, or even dead Diel Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved 30 August Online Etymology Dictionary.
Archived from the original on 7 July The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 5 January Macmillan Publishers.
Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 12 April Archived from the original on 12 April Part One: Historical Films".
Native American Films. Archived from the original on 15 October The Early History of Greater Mexico. Prentice Hall. In Deborah L.
The Oxford Handbook of the Aztecs. Barlow, Robert H. The Americas. University of California Press. Beekman, C. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory.
Berdan, Frances Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology. Berdan, Frances F. Hodge; Michael E. Smith; Emily Umberger eds.
Aztec Imperial Strategies. Imperial Strategies and Core-Periphery Relations". The Essential Codex Mendoza. Aztec Archaeology and Ethnohistory. Cambridge University Press.
Berdan, F. Ancient Mesoamerica. Boone, Elizabeth Hill Austin: University of Texas Press. Brading, D.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bright, W. Brumfiel, Elizabeth M. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association.
Bueno, Christina University of New Mexico Press. Burkhart, Louise M. Indian women of early Mexico. Dialectologia et Geolinguistica.
Campbell, Lyle Oxford Studies in Anthropoical Linguistics, 4. Carrasco, David Boston, MA: Beacon Press. The Aztecs: A very Short Introduction.
Oxford University Press. Carrasco, Pedro University of Oklahoma Press. Charlton, Thomas Mesoamerica Part 1. Chipman, Donald E. University of Texas Press.
Cline, Howard F. Cline ed. Cline, Sarah Mesoamerica Part 2. The Aztec palimpsest: Mexico in the Modern Imagination. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Diel, Lori B. RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics. Elson, Cristina; Smith, Michael E. Franco, Jean Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies. Frazier, E.
In Cora Ma. Falero Ruiz ed. Escudo Nacional: flora, fauna y biodiversidad. Gibson, Charles Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Gillespie, Susan D. Greene, Doyle Gutierrez, Natividad University of Nebraska Press. Hajovsky, Patrick Thomas Harner, Michael American Ethnologist.
Haskett, R. Indigenous rulers: An ethnohistory of town government in colonial Cuernavaca. Hassig, Ross Civilization of the American Indian series.
Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. War and Society in Ancient Mesoamerica. Berkeley: University of California Press. Polygamy and the Rise and Demise of the Aztec Empire.
Haugen, J. Journal in English Lexicology. Helland, J. Woman's Art Journal. Hirth, Kenneth G. The Aztec Economic World. Himmerich y Valencia, Robert The Encomenderos of New Spain, Hodge, Mary G.
James; Minc, Leah D. Latin American Antiquity. Humboldt, Alexander von University of Chicago Press. Isaac, B. Journal of Anthropological Research.
Karttunen, Frances ; Lockhart, James Estudios de Cultura Nahuatl. Kaufman, Terrence Project for the Documentation of the Languages of Mesoamerica.
Revised March Keen, Benjamin The Aztec image in Western thought. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. Keen, B. Kubler, George Hispanic American Historical Review.
Lacadena, Alfonso VIII 4. Fifteen Poets of the Aztec World. Norman, Oklahoma : University of Oklahoma Press. Estudios de la Cultura Nahuatl.
Bernardino de Sahagun, First Anthropologist. Mauricio J. Mixco trans. Lockhart, James Repertorium Columbianum. Translated by Lockhart, James.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Culture. Tamoanchan, Tlalocan: Places of Mist. Mesoamerican Worlds series. Translated by Bernard R.
Ortiz de Montellano; Thelma Ortiz de Montellano. Niwot: University Press of Colorado. The Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan.
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. MacLeod, Murdo Martz, Louis L. New Directions Books. Matos Moctezuma, Eduardo New Aspects of Antiquity series.
Doris Heyden trans. In Hill Boone, Elizabeth ed. The Aztec Templo Mayor. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. McCaa, Robert Journal of Interdisciplinary History.
Archived from the original on 12 July Retrieved 17 February Miller, Mary ; Taube, Karl Minc, Leah D. Montes de Oca, Mercedes Mora, Carl J.
Mexican Cinema: Reflections of a Society, , 3d ed. Mundy, B. Nichols, Deborah L. Nicholson, H. In Gordon F. Ekholm; Ignacio Bernal eds.
In Elizabeth Hill Boone ed. Dumbarton Oaks. Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology. The Oxford Handbook of The Aztecs.
Oxford: Oxford University Press Noguera Auza, Eduardo Translated by George A. Evertt and Edward B. Offner, Jerome A. Law and Politics in Aztec Texcoco.
American Anthropologist. Aztec Medicine, Health, and Nutrition. Ouweneel, A. Pasztory, Esther Aztec Art. Harry N.
Abrams, Inc. Peterson, Jeanette Favrot Visualizing Guadalupe. Pilcher, J. Planet taco: A global history of Mexican food. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Prem, Hanns J. In Victoria R. Bricker ; Patricia A. Andrews eds. Colonial Latin American Review. Restall, Matthew Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest 1st pbk ed.
Retrieved 31 January — via World Digital Library. Sanders, William T. In William Denevan ed. The Native Population of the Americas in revised ed.
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Handbook of Middle American Indians. Schroeder, Susan Chimalpahin and the Kingdoms of Chalco.
Sigal, Pete Smith, Michael E. The Aztecs first ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. In Mogens Herman Hansen ed.
Aztec City-State Capitals. University Press of Florida. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. Scientific American. Soustelle, Jacques Stanford University Press.
Taube, Karl A. Aztec and Maya Myths 4th University of Texas ed. Taube, Karl Nichols; Christopher A. Pool eds. The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology.
Tenorio-Trillo, Mauricio Mexico at the World's Fairs. Tomlinson, G. Journal of the American Musicological Society. Townsend, Richard F.
The Aztecs 3rd, revised ed. VanEssendelft, W. A typological analysis of Aztec placenames". Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.
Whittaker, G. Before the Aztec Empire conquered them, the indigenous native people lived in many separate city-states. These were small cities with farmland around them.
Each state had its own ruler. Around AD, these city-states started to fight each other for power and control of the area's resources. Historians think the Aztecs came to central Mesoamerica around According to historian Lisa Marty:.
By , the Aztecs had built Tenochtitlan on an island in Lake Texcoco. Tenochtitlan became a city-state that gradually became more and more powerful.
By about , three city-states had grown into small empires. In , these two empires fought the Tepanec War for control of the area.
The Texcoco empire made an alliance with some other powerful city-states, including Tenochtitlan, and won the war. These allies were supposed to share power equally as they started to gain control of more land.
However, by , Tenochtitlan became the most powerful member of the alliance. It became the capital city of the Aztec Empire, and its ruler became the 'high king ' of the Empire.
Map of Mesoamerica. Tenochtitlan was the capital city of the Aztec Empire. Tenochtitlan was one of the greatest cities of the world in that time.
By the early s , at least , people lived in the city. This made Tenochtitlan the largest city in the Americas before Christopher Columbus arrived.
Mexico City now covers the whole area where Tenochtitlan used to be. The Aztecs believed in many gods. Two of the most important gods they worshipped were Huitzilopochtli , the god of war and the sun , and Tlaloc , the rain god.
The Aztecs did many things to keep the gods happy. These things included human sacrifices. The Aztecs also believed that the gods were in an almost never-ending struggle.
The hearts and blood from the sacrifice fed the good gods to give them strength to fight the evil gods.
The human sacrifices often took place on the Templo Mayor , the Aztecs' great pyramid temple. Huitzilopochtli, as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis.
Quetzalcoatl in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis. Tezcatlipoca in the Codex Borgia. The Aztecs ate plants and vegetables that could grow easily in Mesoamerica.
The main foods in the Aztec diet were maize , beans, and squash. They often used tomatoes and chili as spices.
They also created chocolate. However, they did not have sugar , so their chocolate was a strong liquid with chili in it. In Aztec society , there were different social classes with different social statuses.
The most important people were the rulers. Next were nobles. These were the Empire's powerful members of the government; great warriors ; judges ; and priests.
The next social class was the commoners common people. These were the Empire's everyday workers. Most of them farmed , ran stores, or traded.
Other workers included artisans , regular soldiers , and fishers. Commoners were allowed to own land as a group or a family.The Aztecs were Native American people who lived in Mesoamerica. They ruled the Aztec Empire from the 14th century to the 16th century. The name "Aztec" comes from the phrase "people from Aztlan". Legends say that Aztlan was the first place the Aztecs ever lived. Aztec Learning System Login. Login. Password. The Aztecs, who probably originated as a nomadic tribe in northern Mexico, arrived in Mesoamerica around the beginning of the 13th century. Aztec rule has been described by scholars as " hegemonic " or "indirect". The Aztecs left rulers of conquered cities in power so long as they agreed to pay semi-annual tribute to the Alliance, as well as supply military forces when needed for the Aztec war efforts. Aztec definition is - a member of a Nahuatl-speaking people that founded the Mexican empire conquered by Cortes in